Article About Macular Pigment Study

By Derbhile Graham

This article originally appeared in The Irish Medical Times

A study conducted by researchers at Waterford Institute of Technology has found that using filtering lenses in cataract surgery reduces the risk of Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD).

The researchers at the Macular Pigment Research Group (MPRG) found that implanting lenses which filter out blue light increases the level of protective macular pigment in the eye.

The MPRG’s findings were featured in the October issue of Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, a journal which is recognised as having the highest impact in the field.

During the trial, 42 patients who were due to undergo cataract surgery were implanted with either blue-light filtering or standard intra-ocular lenses (IOL). The density of macular pigment and the concentration of carotenoids were measured before surgery and several times during the following year.

The MPRG has already conducted a number of studies establishing the role of diet in preventing AMD. The recently published CARMA studies show that supplemental lutein and xeazanthin preserves vision in AMD patients.

However, this study has pinpointed the role harmful blue light plays in retinal degeneration and shown that filtering out blue light increases macular pigment levels. Mr Stephen Beatty, consultant ophthalmologist and researcher with the MPRG, believes that the findings of this study add an extra dimension to the group’s work.          

“It’s unique in that it’s the first time we have been able to demonstrate that this important and protective pigment can be augmented by non-dietary means” says Beatty.

“It tells us a lot about the mechanism of AMD because the blue-filtering lenses resulted in this protective pigment increasing in the eye, therefore implying that it is indeed the blue wavelength of visible light that do cause the retinal damage which results in AMD.”

The study shows that using blue-light filtering lenses will bring immediate and long-lasting benefits to patients undergoing cataract surgery, which will have a bearing on how these procedures are conducted. “Surgeons will be more likely to implant blue-light filtering IOLs if they know it results in greater protection against AMD down the road,” says Mr Beatty.

Article About How Dentists Treat Children With Special Needs

By Derbhile Graham

This article appeared in a 2008 edition of The Irish Examiner Feelgood SupplementBy, a health and lifestyle supplement.

People with special needs face greater dental health problems than the rest of the population and public-sector dentists are forced to deliver a high-quality service with limited resources.

“There is a large amount of unmet need,” said Prof June Nunn, Professor of Special Care Dentistry at Trinity College Dental School. “Access to special services like general anaesthetic (GA), which people with severe impairments particularly need, is limited. Patients are often waiting weeks even for emergency access.”

Dublin only has one GA list for the country’s largest centre of population, but other services can be accessed whenever patients need it. “We have a comprehensive service in place,” says Berna Treacy, Senior Clinical Dental Surgeon for children with special needs in the HSE South Lee Region in Cork. “If someone rings up in pain, they can see a special needs dentist that day.”

The Department of Health has funded training in sedation techniques at Dublin Dental Hospital and Prof Nunn believes training for all public-sector dentists is the key to ensuring a high standard of service for patients with special needs. “We must ensure that the whole dental team are appropriately trained so that there is good access for all patients.”

Meanwhile, dentists on the ground have evolved their own techniques for dealing with special-needs patients. “We use a show-tell-do method, tell them what we’re going, show them what we’re going to do and then do it,” says Berna Treacy. “We introduce them slowly to it and they gradually get used to it.”

Marion Phelan’s 11 year old son David is autistic and uses the HSE’s special-needs dental service in Waterford.

“There’s no way you could give David treatment. He finds the noise level difficult. But we find the dentist very accommodating. She takes her time with him and takes him through everything step-by-step. He doesn’t have to keep his mouth open all the time; she gives him a break. Recently, he allowed her to use the air gun on his cheek.”

“He understands that if he’s calm and keeps his mouth open, he can go to the toy shop afterwards. They play games of dentist at school and the techniques he learns at school follow on in the surgery.”

Want To Try An Online Writing Course?

In the past, I’ve found myself in the disappointing position of having to tell people that I don’t have enough numbers for my creative writing courses. But now that disappointment is behind me, thanks to something I never would have considered before – an online creative writing course.

I thought organising an online writing course would be beyond a technophobe like me, that I would need fancy equipment and high-level editing skills. Then the pandemic came and I found myself giving creative writing classes to two boys via WhatsApp. And I realised I could offer online classes to others, using whatever medium they’re comfortable with.

Rows of square pictures of people taking part in a Zoom writing class. From Gotham Writers.

You would think that online creative writing courses would feel remote and stilted but they’re actually not. My own writers’ group has transferred well onto Zoom. And it didn’t knock a feather out of the boys. They’re so used to talking to people via a video screen already.

Of course there’s no substitute for the real thing, but the advantage of an online course is the level of attention I can give to the people who attend. That allows me to create a personal experience for them, even if they’re not in the room with me.

The online writing courses I’ll give will be in real time, so they’ll be interactive and you’ll feel as if you’re in the same room as the other participants.

So, here’s what I’m going to going to offer in terms of online creative writing courses.

I’ll have time to explore their writing challenges in depth and I can offer detailed feedback which will help them develop their stories. And because I have fewer overheads, I can run my writing courses at a more reasonable price.

Beginners’ Creative Writing for Adults

I’ll give six two-hour writing workshops via Zoom or whatever videoconferencing system you’re most comfortable using. Each class will cover a different creative writing technique, like language usage, character creation and managing points of view.

After the creative writing course is over, you’ll be asked to produce a piece of writing and you’ll receive individual feedback on it. The price of this course is €60 for six sessions, with a $5 discount if you pay for the classes in advance.

Children’s Writing Camps

Children are already used to learning online, as TV screens and computer screens have taken over from the classroom during the pandemic. I’ll do a five-day course for children aged 6-12, with a one-hour session each day.

These will be highly interactive sessions, and the children will travel through time, create their own worlds and bring objects to life. I’m widening the age range I work with two. The five sessions will cost €30, or €25 if you pay in advance.

One-To-One Coaching

This is ideal for people who have a specific idea for a writing project that they want to get off the ground. You’ll have your own exclusive mentoring session to help you develop your idea, whether it’s for a novel, a collection of short stories or a memoir.

I’ll give you tips for structuring your idea and you’ll also receive my tips in a report afterwards, so you won’t need to write like mad while you’re talking. You can also ask for advice if you’re in the middle of a project and you find yourself stuck. This service will cost €60, or €55 if you pay for it in advance.

You’ll find general information about my creative writing courses and my writing consultancy services on my website. If you’d like to chat to me directly about how these classes work, call me on 087 6959799 or email

This week, I are … preparing a young writer for the Leaving Cert

Last week, I received an unexpected message. It was from a parent, asking me if I was offering creative writing classes for a student doing the Leaving Cert (final secondary school exam in Ireland). I hadn’t ever promoted myself as a resource for exam students. I imagined they would be too busy ingesting vast tracts of information for their exams to indulge in such fripperies as creative writing.

However, this parent was willing to consider one on one classes, so I decided to follow up on the query, in case I might be of use. I wanted to be sure the parent understood that I was not a qualified English teacher, but I am a creative writing tutor, so I could help them sharpen their creative writing skills and give them the confidence to tackle the Leaving Cert English essay.

The parent felt that this would be useful and I agreed to give the girl six one-hour sessions. And the parent network being what it is, I soon got another booking to deliver the same service to a boy. In each session, the students will learn a different language or storytelling skill, and these will act as a toolkit that will help them tackle the essay, which they won’t have seen prior to the exam.

The Elements of Story

My sessions will focus on three core skills. I’ll work on language usage, to encourage them away from clichés and to use either fewer or more words, depending on their writing style. We’ll also work on different storytelling techniques, such as character development, plotting, setting and viewpoint.

This will help them structure their ideas. Finally, I’ll help them generate ideas by showing them how to tap into their sentences. This will help them unlock memories that they can turn into stories. Having looked at the essay titles from the 2018 English exam, I’m confident that my approach will help them build up a bank of ideas that they can draw on when they’re in the exam hall. Rather than learn off an essay and hope it comes up, they’ll have the flexibility to adapt their ideas to the essay titles that come up.

Overall, I’ll show them how to make the essay titles interesting and relevant for them, so that even if English isn’t their passion, they’ll find a way to make the English essay their own. At the very last, it’ll take the fear factor out of being confronted with a series of essay titles and a blank page.

I also offer one to one consultancy for adults who have ideas for writing projects but are not quite sure how to move them forward. You’ll find out more about them here.

Upcoming WriteWords Creative Writing Workshops

In a fit of organisational zeal last week, I organised a tonne of creative writing workshops that will see me through the summer. Good-quality, reasonably priced venues in my area are hard to come by, and I wanted to pounce on my favourite venue, the Coastguard Cultural Centre in Tramore, Co. Waterford, before the slots are all gone. So, I’ve set up three workshops for the coming months in the Coastguard.

The Coastguard Cultural Centre in Tramore, Co. Waterford, an ideal venue for creative writing workshops.

Here’s what you can expect from the WriteWords creative writing workshop stable in the coming months.

Easter Children’s Writing Camp

This camp will be happening over two afternoons in the second week of the Easter holidays, when parents are beginning to tear their hair out wondering what to do with their offspring. My camps are all for children aged 8-12, the perfect age to start writing, before inhibitions kick in. They’ll have great fun travelling to lands of their own making, creating characters with magical powers and making up stories that could go absolutely anywhere. It’s happening at the Coastguard Cultural Centre on Tuesday 23 and Wednesday 24 April, from 1-4pm. The price of the camp is €40.

Memoir Writing Workshop for Adults

Following the success of my last memoir writing workshop for adults in Tramore, I’m doing another one on Sunday 12 May. Like the last workshop, it will be a chance for you to tell the story of your life. A lot of people find that they’re drowning in material from their lives and don’t know where to start. This workshop will give you a structure that will help you shape your ideas. We’ll also take a journey through the senses, to explore how the senses trigger memories and emotions. If this sounds interesting to you, it’s happening on Sunday 12 May from 10.30am to 3.30pm in the Coastguard in Tramore. The cost is €50.

Summer Children’s Writing Camp

In the long and hopefully hot month of August, I will be giving a children’s summer writing camp, and I’ll be going back to my usual format of a three-day camp. As well as learning the techniques of story, they’ll come away with their own completed story, which gives them a real feeling of accomplishment. The camp will happen on three mornings, on August 6, 7 and 8, again in the Coastguard. What can I say? It’s a venue that has everything. The cost of this camp will be €60, and it will run from 9.30am to 1pm each day.

If you’re living in the Waterford area and you’d like to book one of these workshops for yourself or your children, you can email or call 051 386 250. And if you’d like to find out more about the workshops WriteWords offers, check out our Writing Workshops page. B��

A Glorious Mix of Writing and Editing

As you know, I love to mix it up when it comes to writing and editing, meaning I love assignments that allow me to combine the two. For the past few months, I’ve been doing a somewhat unusual assignment which allows me to do just that. In the past, I have been asked to write newsletters and to edit newsletters. For this assignment, I write part of the newsletter and then edit the rest.

A Remote Working Assignment

The assignment is for a start-up company that is developing event management software. They have a remote working model, meaning they hire freelancers to supply services from home, in a way that fits into the freelancer’s timetable. My role is to edit the newsletter for events professionals, people who organise events, and to write an intro that will engage readers and entice them to read further.

As it’s a remote-working model, all communication is done by virtual means. The newsletter is compiled by an in-house employee, who alerts me via the instant-messaging app Slack that the newsletter is ready for editing. I then access the newsletter through MailChimp, a software platform that allows people to design and distribute newsletters. I read through the newsletter first to familiarise myself with the content, edit it and then write the intro.

Approach to Editing

When I edit, I look for typos and for errors in sentence structure, which are actually more common. I change the sentences so that they read more coherently. I also edit for tone. The company is aiming for a chatty, informal tone, so I change any wording that I think is too stilted and informal. When I’m familiar enough with the content, I’m then able to write the intro, and I make sure to write it in a warm, friendly tone that invites people to read further.

Deadlines are often tight, so I don’t always get a chance to go over the newsletter a second time. But if time allows, I go over it one more time to check for stray typos. I nearly always spot ways to make a sentence flow more smoothly, or a glaring typo that escaped my eye the first time. Then I sign it off and the in-house team sends it out to a growing list of subscribers.

It’s satisfying to know that I’m playing a role in making the newsletter more readable for subscribers, and that the polish I give the newsletter may be instrumental in attracting new subscribers. Also, it’s a gift to have a regular assignment that I can rely on every week, one that neatly fits into my schedule.

I do also write full length newsletters. If you’d like to find out more about my email marketing and other content creation services, have a browse through the content creation section of my website.

How to Write a Cracking Reader’s Report

In case any of you were longing for a blog entry from me last week, I was on holidays. On my return, I was delighted to discover a lovely new project waiting for me in my inbox, in which I get paid to read. It’s a reader’s report for an author who has finished a memoir and wants to find out whether it is ready for publication.

A reader’s report is a curious beast, as it crosses the line between writing and editing. It’s a comprehensive critique of a novel, a memoir or a short story collection, with editorial suggestions that authors can apply immediately, either to complete their writing project or to polish it up for publication.

How The Report Is Compiled

I start by reading through the author’s story almost as if I were a casual reader, letting the words sink in. But I take notes along the way, making observations that I can later turn into recommendations. After I’ve finished, it’s time to get down to brass tacks and start giving my verdict on the story. I’ll always start with the strong points in the story, to encourage authors and give them a feeling of confidence. Then I compile a set of recommendations, which I divide into different sections.

The most important sections are the ones that deal with the building blocks of story: character, setting and plot. I help them to flesh out their characters and pay attention to how their characters interact. I encourage them to draw on the senses to create a strong sense of place for readers. Finally, I advise them on ways to pace their plot and ensure the plot holds the reader’s interests. 

Finer Details of Story

I then go into the finer details of story. The point of view a story is told from can shape how the story develops. I advise them on how to achieve a consistent point of view and how to make seamless changes in viewpoint. I’ll advise them on whether their dialogue reads the way people would speak and show them how to lay it out correctly. A reader’s report is more about giving broad editorial suggestions than editing an author’s language or tweaking the layout. However, if I notice recurring language or layout errors, I will flag these to the author.

Reader’s reports steer authors through the maze of their ideas.

These editorial suggestions usually apply to both fiction and memoir, because authors are using many of the same storytelling skills and are taking a creative approach to writing about their lives. However, for memoir writers, libel can be an issue, so I give general advice on material that could be libellous and suggest they contact a good libel solicitor.

Why Reader’s Reports Work

For all reader’s reports, I will then give a conclusion, summarising my recommendations and giving authors suggestions on how to further develop their stories. Some may need to flesh out the story to make it long enough for publishing. Others may need to work on the building blocks of story to make the story more convincing. Some lucky authors are more or less ready to go, with just a few suggestions from me to take them over the finishing line.

For me, creating reader’s reports is very satisfying, as it gives me a chance to help other writers achieve their writing dreams. For the authors, my hope is that the reader’s report will guide them through the maze of writing a book and help them over the finish line. If they’re getting ready to report, my reader’s reports will give them access to an objective view that they can use to help them decide if they will publish. If you’d like to find out more about how a reader’s report can help you achieve your writing goals, check out the WriteWords writing consultancy services.

Unveiling the Brand-New WriteWords Website

It’s here! The brand-spanking new WriteWords Editorial website is now up. It has a shiny, polished look, but most importantly, it has menus that are easy to navigate for people browsing on phones. You’ll find out what services I offer, and I’ve added a few new ones like writing consultancy and transcription. You’ll also find out why availing of the WriteWords service is a good idea.

This website is a WordPress website, created by the loving hands and nimble tech brain of Samantha Clooney from The Virtual Office, who relishes a challenge. As I’m familiar with WordPress from this blog, Samantha has give me almighty power to add content to the website, so you’ll see the latest blog posts on that as well.

If you have a moment, I’d love you to drop in and let me know what you think about the website. Is there anything I could add or take away? I hope it will be useful to you and give you the information you need.

How One Man Turned A Creative Writing Workshop Into Publishing Success

A few days ago, I received an email that made my day. Robert Thompson, who had attended one of my creative writing workshops, wrote to tell me he had self-published a book. It’s always delightful to see someone’s idea come to fruition, but this news was especially sweet to hear because in an unexpected way, I had achieved an ambition of my own.

Writing Workshops

For three years between 2014 and 2017, on and off, I gave various creative writing workshops at the National Council for the Blind in Dublin. They were in fiction, journalism and memoir and they were very successful and well attended, with the memoir workshops striking a particular chord. Being partially sighted myself, these workshops were very dear to my heart.

Robert Thompson came to one of the memoir workshops, where he produced a piece of writing that was so perfectly crafted that I could think of nothing further to add as feedback. It was a funny, warm piece that delighted everyone who heard it. It was writing of this quality that made me want to take the workshops further. I wanted published work to come out of the workshops, Writing that would give participants the chance to show the world that they are more than their disability, writing that would help them give shape their experience and help readers see the world as they saw it.

Barriers to Publishing Success

For a variety of reasons, that didn’t happen. The funding available for such projects tended to be for group collaborations led by an artist, in which the artist would create the work in conjunction with a community group. But I feel that if the participants really wanted to show the world what they were made of, they needed to be given a chance to create their own work, to let their unique voices be heard. I also had to recognise that what I wanted wasn’t necessarily what the participants wanted. The workshops began to lose momentum and fizzled out. That’s the nature of these things.

Robert’s Publishing Quest

Robert Thompson came to the workshops at around the time they started to fizzle out, and he booked a couple of workshops that didn’t happen due to lack of numbers. I felt sorry that he in particular wasn’t going to have the chance to be part of a bigger writing project with the participants. But Robert took matters into his own hands and finished a book called Insights from an Unsighted World, in which he shares his own stories of sight loss and raises awareness of the needs of visually impaired people in gentle ways.

Robert was kind enough to say that my workshop was the spark that led to the book. I’m just happy to know that the workshops did achieve the outcome I hoped for in the end, that published work came out of it. I’m delighted that Robert was able to share his story, and in the process, move beyond the confines of his disability. He has produced an elegant book written in the concise, lyrical, humorous style that I encountered in the workshop, and now the world will have a chance to experience it.

I hope you buy this book. I hope you don’t buy it out of pity. And I hope you buy it even if you have no connection to anyone with sight loss. If you enjoy stories that give you a glimpse into other people’s worlds, or you want to get an insight into how people cope with life’s hurdles, you’ll find it an interesting read. Even if you have no interest in the subject matter, you will get a warm glow from knowing that you are supporting two very worthwhile charities. Robert is selflessly donating the proceeds of the book to Irish Guide Dogs and the National Council for the Blind.

If I’ve managed to entice you to buy Robert’s book, you can order it at Irish Guide Dogs.

Create Powerful Stories From Your Own Life

A couple of years ago, I gave a series of one-day memoir writing workshops, which gave people a chance to write about their lives. The workshops were a success, so I decided to revive them.

I was delighted to discover that interest in memoir writing was still as strong as ever, and the workshop soon filled up. On a Sunday morning, ten women gathered in a beautiful, sunny room to begin unlocking their memories and turning those memories into stories.

This writing workshop aimed to show the participants that their daily lives contained all the material they needed for stories. It would also show them that they only needed to record their lives with one small story at a time, event by event. This would take away that sense of drowning in story that often paralyses people and stops them from writing.

Building Stories

We began with the building blocks of story, which I’ve discussed in previous blog posts. After warm-ups, we did one exercise to cover each of the three building blocks: plot, character and setting. For plot, the participants recorded a small but significant injustice that happened to them when they were young. Everyone has a story like this – a time when they were promised a prize that wasn’t delivered, or when they were left out of a family occasion. Small incidents that sear themselves into your memory. Recording them makes for vivid stories.

Then we moved to character, and the participants did a character sketch, a sort of portrait in words of someone significant in their lives. They wrote CV type details like their name, age and address, described their appearance, and gave more personal details, like their hobbies, jobs, and family circumstances. The most important part of the sketch was the character’s secret past, a detail about them that was unusual or wasn’t known to the general public. This detail often forms the basis for rich stories.

Finally, we discussed setting, the time and the place where a story happens, and the characters wrote about rooms in their houses that meant a lot to them. I asked them to write about their bedrooms, as people often have a strong relationship with their bedroom, but they could write about any room that they were attached to. They wrote about what the room looked like, sounded like and smelled like, and most importantly, how it made them feel.

Journey Through the Senses

After lunch, it was time for a journey through the senses. With memories of good food still in their minds, the participants captured the taste of oranges, which can be a challenging fruit, and recorded a memory of a meal which was either horrible or delicious.

Oranges work all of a writer’s senses.

Then they told the life stories of unusual objects. I gave each of them an object from my collection of weird treasures, and they imagined where it came from, what adventures it had had and how it came to be here. This exercise was the hit of the day, producing vivid stories packed with event and emotion.

Finally, we travelled through soundscapes, recording the sounds we loved and despised, and listening to a piece of music which produced mixed reactions. The participants were asked to pick five words that came to mind when they heard the music. I deliberately pick pieces of music that aren’t easy on the ear, based on the fact that uncomfortable sensations produce writing that is just as eloquent as that produced by beautiful sensations.

If you feel you’d like to record your own memories through story and you’d like to be included in an upcoming memoir workshop, send me an email on and I’ll add you to my newsletter mailing list. 00